How Does A CNC Router Work?

How does a CNC Router Work? That is all explained over here below!

Before jumping into the topic, you must know the background of the CNC router. If you are pondering over to purchase a CNC router or if you have bought and thought about how to use it. Don’t worry, we have got you covered.

It is essential to know what the CNC router is, what are its components, and its functions.

Part 1: Explaining CNC Router Before Describing How Does A CNC Router Work

CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. It is almost identical to the most customarily utilized handheld routers. CNC router is one of the most sought-after machines that you utilize for cutting various materials.

A CNC router helps in cutting various materials such as aluminum, foam, wood, composites, steel, and plastic. The important characteristic that makes CNC router different from the other routers is that it is able to create or generate “routes” for the router, which helps to cut easily.

It basically utilizes computer software to work.

Three Directions in Which CNC Router Moves and Cuts

These three directions are mentioned as X, Y, and Z-axis.

  • X-axis – it is the longest, and it runs from front to back. It represents length.
  • Y-axis – it runs from left to right direction. It represents width.
  • Z-axis – it runs from up to down. It represents a vertical direction.

Is CNC Router Humongous?

CNC routers are humongous, and they are extremely large. They may require a spacious home because of their massive and enormous size.


A few of the advantages of CNC router are listed below:

  1. CNC router reduces wastage because it cuts precisely.
  2. It increases productivity because minimal time is required to create or manufacture products.
  3. It helps to produce a variety of items in a short time as compared to other machines.
  4. CNC router is more accurate in comparison to handheld machines.
  5. It is able to handle the designs that are more complex, delicate, and intricate.
  6. Whichever material you want to cut, this machine is stellar. The CNC router will cut any material with the same accuracy.
  7. These routers work very efficiently and work simultaneously in three directions, which enables them to manufacture complex shapes.

Part 2: Let’s Dive Into The Main Elements Of A CNC Router

1. Computer Systems and the CNC Controller

These two go hand in hand and work in conjunction with direct and undeviating the motors. You specify a design in a digital format to the computer.

Then the computer changes the blueprint or a sketch to a new format that is called G-code. The production of digital signals occurs, after the conversion of these commands.

2. The Use of a Spindle

The spindle is the component of the CNC router, which is accountable for cutting. It works at different speeds. The spindle rotates and cuts, and the speed depends upon the type of material being cut.

Per-minute, the spindle cuts soft materials at about 8,000 to 24,000 revolutions. For metals, it ranges for about 2,000 and 10,000 RPM.

3. Cutting Bed

It does not matter which kind of bed for cutting you own; nevertheless, they have the same function. The cutting bed is designed solely for the purpose of securing the material and it also makes any material reliable and fixed before cutting.

Vacuum bed is the most usual cutting bed. Plus, it contains a vacuum motor whose purpose is to hold the material down for you as you try to cut.

T-slot design is another typical cutting bed, which consists of bolts and clamps. On to the bed, these pieces help to hold the workpiece or material firmly.

4. Drive System

These different axes use a drive system that is linear. This aids the spindles to move within the axis range. The following integrants of CNC router linear drive system are as follows:

  • It consists of a single motor
  • A guide system and linear bearing
  • A single ball screw OR
  • Assembly of rack and pinion drive

The most integral link is between motor, system’s mechanics, and system’s electronics. The CNC controller, upon need, is also capable of providing rotational power.

The CNC routers can have a stepper, or it may have servo motors. Less expensive kinds of motors are steppers, and they are also very reliable.

Moreover, servo motors consist of a loop system that is closed, and it is one of the advantages that servo motors provide. This indicates that whenever a CNC controller receives commands, they will give back an indication or a signal which denotes that they have accomplished the given task.

Part 3: The Main Question – How Does A CNC Router Work

The usage of the CNC router is to cut and manipulate the wood. Nowadays, several woodworkers utilize CNC routers to shape and cut a broad array of different kinds of wood.

Firstly, you have to use the software, either computer-aided design (CAD) or computer-aided manufacture (CAM). The thing about this software is that you can insert the design, and it will cut the material accordingly and precisely.

The CNC router processes your information, and then it carries your commands out by cutting the material exactly how you want. The movement and cutting of the router are in three different directions, i.e., X, Y, and Z-axis, as already discussed above.

According to the given instructions, the movement of the router takes place, and it cuts the material with extreme accuracy and precision. Due to which, it creates complex shapes; otherwise, it will be difficult or nearly impossible if use hands.

Example of Utilizing a CNC Router

For instance, you have a patio, and for that, you are willing to design a chair that is somewhat rustic. What you will do is that you will choose to utilize the CNC router. On a personal computer, you will use either a CAM software or CAD software.

Afterward, you will insert and feed in the design to notify the router to cut exactly the way you want it to cut.

Then, it will cut your wood precisely and at accurate angles. Now, you will have these wood pieces; all you have to do is join the screws or bolts to obtain a rustic and comfortable patio chair.

To Sum Up, How Does A CNC Router Work

Learning to use a CNC router is not rocket science. Once you get a hold of it, it becomes very easy and effortless to use. This comprehensive article provides you will all the general information that you need to understand.

On the other hand, you can also use CNC routers for your hobbies, such as making art pieces, woodworking, and creating prototypes.

I hope by reading this article, all your possible queries will be solved regarding your question: How does A CNC router work.

No Responses